The improvement of protein efficiency (PE) is an essential component in the development of a sustainable pig production. This study aims to estimate the heritability of PE when dietary protein is reduced, and to estimate its genetic correlations with meat quality and production traits. A total of 682 pigs were used in estimating the heritability of PE, and 512 pigs in estimating genetic correlations. The results from this study showed potential for selective breeding of PE in Large White pigs with a heritability of 0.40. Meat quality, except meat redness, is not expected to be influenced by genetic improvement of PE, as there were no significant genetic correlations between PE and meat quality traits. Favourable relationships exist between PE and feed conversion ratio, and with average daily feed intake, which means that protein-efficient pigs fed under a reduced-protein diet consume less feed and efficiently convert the feed to lean mass.